Kremesti Environmental: Water Treatment Portal
Water Treatment Specialist
On this page, I have compiled a wealth of information for the water treatment professional or enthusiast consisting of topics in water treatment technology, water chemistry, microbiology, some resources and references. Water treatment and chemistry in general are my passion and I hope this page is useful for you.
I - Water: An Overview and FAQ's:
II - Water Impurities:
III - Problems Caused by Water Impurities
All problems caused by water impurities cause a loss of efficiency in plant operations, loss in equipment life expectancy, and health and environmental problems. These are the major problems caused by water impurities:
IV - Water Treatment Chemicals
Click here for different types of Algaecides and Biocides
RO Antiscalants/Cleaning Chemicals
Boiler Antiscalants/Dispersants/Corrosion Inhibitors
Cooling Water Antiscalsnts/Dispersants
V - Analysis of Water
VI - Water Uses in Industry:
A. Power Generation (boilers/turbines)
VII - Water Treatment Processes/Equipment:
VIII - Water Related Associations/Institutes/Unions:
IX - Water Related References/Papers/Training Companies:
A. Wiley Water Encyclopedia: http://www.wileywater.com/
G. World Resources Institute (WRI) is an environmental think tank.
X - Water Treatment Industry Key Players:
XI - Market Research/Data:
Excellent resource for the water market is the following from MAC (Market Access and Compliance):
Market Research Resource: http://www.marketresearch.com/.
Water Treatment Market Reports from Report Linker
XII - Industrial/Municipal Waste Water Treatment Sequence:
A. Pretreatment: This stage involves methods such as steam stripping, oxidation and neutralization. This stage removes impurities such as phenols, thiols, amines, ammonia, sulfide and adjusts the PH
B. Primary Treatment: This stage aims to remove free oil, suspended/emulsified oil, suspended solids, colloids. Methods used include Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF), Coagulation, Sand Filtration.
C. Secondary Treatment: (aka biological treatment, activated sludge, "bugs" treatment) This stage uses sludges that contain microbiologically active bacteria ("bugs" in slang) that metabolize impurities and break them down into simpler less harmful molecules. This stage removes dissolved oraganics.
D. Tertiary Treatment: This stage removes color, taste, odor, dissolved organics and inorganics. It uses methods such as Ozonation, activated-Carbon filtration, ultrafiltration, Reverse Osmosis, Ion Exchange resins, and EDR.
E. Sludge Dewatering: This stage reduces the volume of the refuse sludge that is generated in previous stages by reducing the water content of the refuse sludge. Methods used are centrifugation, filter-presses, belt-pressing.
Check Lenntech's water treatment Decision Path tutorial.
XII-A - Books On Water Treatment
1. Cooling Water Treatment: Principles and Practice: Colin Frayne
Hardcover, Package, 1999
4. Theory and Practice of Water and Wastewater Treatment (Hardcover, 1996)
Author: Ronald L. Droste
6. List of Water Treatment Books recommended by Lenntech.
7. AWWA Handbook of Water Treatment Plant Design
8. Metcalf and Eddy's Waste Water Treatment Engineering
XIII - Print and Online Water-Related Journals/Sites/Articles/Videos:
Water Research by Elsevier
The Filtration Spectrum by Osmonics
XIV - Water Jobs
Monster.com, Totaljobs.com, and EURES.
Middle Eastern Jobs - Bayt.com
XV - Water/Environmental Research Centers/Institutes/Eco Initiatives
Zuckerberg Institute for Water Research at Ben Gurion University
Horizon 2020 - Depolluting the Mediterranean
Life Straw - Point of Use Potabilization of Surface Water
XVI - Innovative technologies:
ActiFlo - The Ultimate Clarifier based on Ballasted Clarification
OSorb - A Nanomaterial glass that absorb organic compounds from water
Sonoxide - Ultrasonic, chemical-free Microbiological control for cooling water applications from Ashland.
Direct Osmosis High Salinity chemical-free cleaning of fouled RO membranes.
Electro Deionization - EDI - Excellent article from GE Water on the innovative eco-friendly technology for water deionization.
RECAM from SA Envitech - Nano Material based on Graphene with high affinity for organics.
High Efficiency Electropositive Nano-Alumina Coated Filters from Argonide Corporation.
CoMag and BioMag: Magnetite-Ballasted High-Performance Clarification and Waste Water Treatment
Drinking With the Wind - Wind Powered RO Desalination
Bearingless Pumps for ultrapure water applications
Aerobic Granular Sludge Technology: NEREDA ®
Newater : Converting Sanitary Waste Water to Drinking Water
The Organica Food Chain Reactor for Waste Water Treatment
Novomer - CO2 based Environmentally Friendly Polymers
Living Machine Systems: Tidal Flow Wetlands and Hydraponic WT
XVII - Analysis of Micro-Biology in Water
Biological control is an important part of a successful water treatment program. If biological activity is not controlled,
critical plant equipment and piping will experience under-deposit and microbially-influenced corrosion (MIC) or clogging of filtering equipment. MIC can
produce pipe failures in a relatively short period. RO membranes can experience an irreversible decline in rejection rate. Inadequate bacteria control can
contribute to potential health hazards such as Legionellosis. Even minimal biofilm on heat transfer surfaces can effect the efficiency of the equipment and
Heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), bioassay slides, SRB (Sulfate Reducing Bacteria) tests, ATP (Adenosine Tri-Phosphate) analysis, aerobic/anaerobic bacterial analysis, etc. are part of routine biological water analysis.
Some more detailed tests that can be carried out are:
Total Plate Count at 22oC
There is also an array of tests that can be done to determine the type pf algae in water.
Microbial analysis is also very important in monitoring the health of biomass in activated sludge processes as well as digestion processes. So is the monitoring of pH, DO and C/H/N. Sometimes when the Biota is inactivated by toxic compounds, Bioaugmentation becomes necessary.
Sludge Retention Time and the F/M ration are two important factors that affect microbiological populations in activated sludge. This graph illustrates this.
XVIII - Municipal Waste Water Treatment
A very interesting topic because there are very interesting technologies invovled:
Sewage water treatment is broken down into, Primary, Secondary and Tertiary waste water treatment.
In Primary Waste Water Treatment, grit removal, settling of solids and skimming of scum is the main process used.
In Secondary Waste Water Treatment, the organics in the water are broken down using biologically active bacteria in any one of the following processes:
- Activated Sludge Process in which the bacteria that break down the organic waste are suspended in the waste water
In tertiary waste water treatment, Phosphorus and Nitrogen are removed using chemical precipitation or biological phosphorus removal for P and for Nitrogen, the nitrification-denitrification biological process is used. Also, clear effluent is disinfected using oxidizing biocides or UV.
Click here to read a more detailed overview of sewage treatment.
IX - Various Topics/Technologies
XIX - B - RO Membrane Cleaning Chemicals
XIX - C - Electro Deionization - EDI
XIX - D - Swimming Pool Water Treatment
XIX - E - Semiconductor Water Treatment
XIX - F - Water Steam Cycle Chemistry
XIX - G - Fish Control
XIX - H - Control and Instrumentation
XIX - I- Multiple Stage Flash Distillation
XIX - J - Multiple Effect Distillation
XIX - K - Ultra Filtration
XIX - l - Package Sewage Treatment Plants
XIX - J - Glass vs . ISFET pH Electodes
XIX - K - Health, Safety and the Environment
XIX - L - Zero Liquid Discharge
XIX - M - Grey Water Treatment
XIX - O - Phosphorus Removal from Waste water
XIX - P - Carrousel Waste Water Treatment
XIX - Q - Interesting Facts About Feces
XIX - R - Electrocoagulation
XIX - S - Gas Phase Chemical Reduction Technology
XIX - T - Biogas Plants
XIX - U - Coalescers and Oil Water Separators
XIX - V - Forward Osmosis
XIX - X Class A and Class B Biosolids
XIX - Y Biofilms in SWRO
XX - MBR Technology for Waste Water Treatment
Membrane Bio Reactors are MF/UF membrane based systems that filter the MLSS (Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids = the mixture of waste water and active biomass) of the activated sludge process and hence separate the treated waste water from the suspended solids and active sludge thus achieving very low levels of BOD, SS and bacterial counts in the effluent. The MBR process replaces the settling process which follows the aeration step in the activated sludge process hence reducing WWTP footprint.
Famous MBR system suppliers on the market are:
Zenon MBR systems from GE Water
Puron MBR systems from Koch Membrane Systems
Xpress, Petro and MemPulse MBR systems from Siemens Water
A good website on MBR is the MBR Network
Small Package Sewage Treatment Plants based on MBR technology suppliers:
XXI - Water Treatment Software
Software is used in water treatment to design RO, ion exchange systems as well as to model scaling potential of chemical species in cooling water. So called EMS software helps companies manage energy consumption by optimising pump and store functions.
French Creek Software for Modeling Scaling Potential in Cooling Water
Derceto's Aquadapt - Energy Management Software
US Amry Corps of Engineers Fish Behavior Modeling Software
Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling Software
BioWin WWT Simulation Software from EnviroSim